Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

The information about Chickpea is by no means final and it is being continuously corrected/ updated.

Breedings of Chickpea:



The main objectives of Chickpea breeding programs.
1.Breeding for higher yield:
Chickpea is has very low harvest index values due to the indeterminate growth habit, photo-sensitive as well as thermo-sensitive and is characterized by poor partitioning of the photosynthates.Yield potentiality can be increase by breeding cultivars responsive to fertilizer and irrigation.
2.Breeding for extended adaptation of chickpea in space and time:
This objective schedules the ways of breeding cultivars suited for winter sowing in the Mediterranean and for double cropping in the irrigated areas of the Indian subcontinent.
3.Breeding for resistance to biotic stress:
Breeding for resistance to biotic stresses will help stabilze chickpea production.There are many types of biotic stresses in Chickpea which deprives the yield production.Ascochyta blight, wilt and root rot (diseases), pod borer and leaf minor(pests), cyst, root knot root lesion nematodes( soil microorganisms) all these come under the biotic stress.
4.Breeding for resistance to abiotic stress:
Breeding for resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress is an important objective because these result in high yield instability. The major abiotic stresses are drought, salinity, cold and frost.
5.Identification of stable form of male sterility:
The process of heterosis is difficult in Chickpea and for this male sterility is a very important factor.In the absence of stable male sterility, development of stable and useful male sterility becomes an important objective.
CAB.Internatinal2007,Chickpea Breeding and Management(ed.SS.Yadav).Link

These are the varieties developed from three-way crosses in Chickpea.In India following are the varieties:
Name of variety Pedigree Date of release Important traits
BG244 ([850-3/27 x P922]xP9847 Kabuli type 1985 Blight ans stunt resistant,cold tolerant
BGD72 ([BG256 x E100Y] x BG256 1999 High yielding
C214 ([G24xIP58]xG24 1971 Drought-reistant and cold reistant
H208 ([26x G24] xC235) 1977 Drought reistant
HK94-134 ([H82-2 x E100Y]x Bhim) 2001 Large-seeded Kabuli
ICCC31 ([P481 x JG62] x P1630 2001 Wilt and dry root rot-resistant
JG11 ([PhuleG5 x Narshinghpur bold]x ICCC37) 1989 Wilt-resistant and moderately root rot-resistant
JG130 ([PhuleG 5 X Narsinghpur bold] X JG74 2000 Wilt-resistant, dry root rot and pod borer-tolerant
JKG-1 ([ICCV2 x Surutato] x ICC7344) 2002 Large seeded Kabuli


These are the following Chickpea varieties all over the world.
ICC4958,PI489777,BGD72,C214,H208,HK94-134,ICCC31,JG11,JG130,JKG-1,Pb7;G24;S26,T1,T2,T3,T87,K4,KWR108,KGD1168,Pragati,DPC92-3,JGG1,JG5,JG62,JG221,JG315,Ujjain21,Ujjain24,Gwalior2,Chaffa,D8,BDN9-3,RS10,GNG 149,Co1,Co2,Warangal,Jyoti,BR17,BR77,BR78,RAU15,CSG8962,Annegeri,dahod yellow.

These are the worldwide Chickpea Varities:
Desi: Amethyst, Flipper, Kyabra, Iimbour, Moti, Yoker, Howzat, Genesis TM 508, Genesis TM 509, CICAO 503, Sonali and Tyson.
Kabuli:Bumper, Garnet, kaniva, Kimberley, Macarena,Almaz, Genesis TM 079, Genesis TM 090, Genesis 114, Genesis TM 425, Kaniva, Nafice and Bumper.

Chickpea varieties developed by pure line selection in India.
State Caltivars
Punjab Pb7;G24;S26
Uttar Pradesh T1,T2,T3,T87,K4,KWR108,KGD1168,Pragati,DPC92-3
Madhya Pradesh JGG1,JG5,JG62,JG221,JG315,Ujjain21,Ujjain24,Gwalior2
Maharashtra Chaffa,D8,BDN9-3
Rajasthan RS10,GNG 149
Tamilnadu Co1,Co2
Andhra Pradesh Warangal,Jyoti
Bihar BR17,BR77,BR78,RAU15
Harayana CSG8962
karnataka Annegeri
Gujrat Dahod yellow


The world's total production of chickpeas hovers around 8.5 million metric tons annually and is grown over 10 million hectares of land approximately. The Desi type chickpea contribute to around 80% and the Kabuli type around 20% of the total production.
India is the largest producer of this pulse contributing to around 70% of the world's total production. Desi type chickpeas largely dominate the ratio of production in India.
Regarding the consumption pattern, all most all of the chickpea is consumed in the countries where it is produced.
According to World Trade Statistics, the total world exports in 2002 were 743 thousand tons.
The major exporter countries of chickpea are: -
The top three exporting countries i.e. Turkey, Australia and Mexico have a combine share of over 75% of the world total exports of chickpeas. The imports figure around 500 thousand tons in a year and is not concentrated as in the case of the chickpea exports. Around 3/4th share of imports is divided among the following countries with India representing a share of around 30% of the total world imports: -
Countries in the Asian continent are the major importer of Desi type chickpea and the remaining countries import Kabuli type chickpea.


Cultivation pattern:

  • As chickpea has a deep tap root which enhances its capacity to stand drought conditions, it is usually suited to those areas having relatively cooler climatic conditions and a low level of rainfall. It yields best when grown on sandy, loam soils having an appropiate drainage system as this crop is very sensitive to the excess water aviailability and a lack of such system can hamper the yield levels. The production of chickpea or chana is also affected in excessive cold conditions.
  • Chickpea is seeded in the months of September to November in India and that is why it is comes under the category of rabi crops. In US, this crop is planted around mid April.
  • The maturity period of desi type chickpea is 95-105 days and of kabuli type chickpea is 100-110 days.
  • Harvesting of the plant is done when its leaves start drying and shedding and can be done directly or with the help of a harvester. In India, it is harvested in February, March and April.
  • This crop is often cultivated as a sole crop but sometimes it is also grown rotationally with other crops such as jowar, bajra, wheat and coriander. Pale yellow, dark brown, black or reddish chickpea are some of the varieties that are grown today.

  • Chickpea(Chana) producing countries:
    The major producing countries of chickpea are: -

    The production of chickpea in the countries with * sign is dominated by the Desi type chickpeas. The other countries are indulged mainly in the production of Kabuli type chickpeas. The world production of chickpeas in 2003-04 was 8660000 metric tons. India is the largest producer of chickpea followed by Pakistan, Turkey and Iran. India produces around 6000000 and contributes around 70% of the world total production. The production of this crop follows a variable trend as the major producer i.e. India itself has a variable trend of production. Production of chana in India
    Chana is grown in the drier areas of the country as they are best suited for its production.

    Chickpea producing states in India are:

    Madhya Pradesh produces the major share of around 40% in the Indian production of around 6 million tons. Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan follow Madhya Pradesh contributing to 16% and 14% of production respectively. Since 1990, a rise in the productivity of chickpea in India has been observed from 614 kg per hectare to 735 kg per hectare. Indian chana market

    Chana is the most important pulse grown in the Indian subcontinent. Most of the people in the country satisfy their appetite requirements by consuming pulses and Chana is the most dominating pulse in that list.
    Chickpea is the most largely produced pulse crop in India accounting to a share of 40% of the total pulse crops produced in India and that makes it the leading chickpea producing country in the world. India produces around 6 million tons of chana annually and contributes a major share of approximately 70% in the total world production. India produces mostly the Desi type chickpeas and not the Kabuli type.

    The domestic demand of chickpea is so large that after it being the largest producer of chana, India is also the largest importer of chana in the world. Over 4/5ths of the chana produced in the country is used to produce 'Chana Dal' and over 4/5ths of this 'Dal' is ground to make flour termed as 'Besan' in India. The Indian imports figure around 3-4 lakh tons i.e. 30% of the total world imports.

    The countries which exports chickpea to India are:

    India also exports some of its chickpea produce to other nations for the consumption of people of Indian origin living in those countries. These countries are:

    Market Influencing Factors

    Rainfall level and level of moisture in the soil Obstruction in the information movement Black-marketing and hoarding Crop situation in the countries from where India imports the crop Prices of the other competitive pulses produced.

    Major trading centers of chickpea
    Major trading centers of chana in India are: -