National Institute of Plant Genome Research
Digital India   Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav     
 
    Dr. Gitanjali Yadav
    MNASc
    Staff Scientist V
    Ph.D. National Institute of Immunology (NII, JNU; New Delhi)
    M.Sc. Biomedical Research (ACBR, University of Delhi)
    B.Sc. Botany (Hon) Sri Venkateswara College (University of Delhi)
    Tel: 011-26735103 ; Fax: 91-11-26741658
    E-mail: gy@nipgr.ac.in; gy246@cam.ac.uk
 Web LInks
University of Cambridge
Global Food Security
Google Scholar
Member INYAS
Bioinformatics Training, Cambridge, U.K
 Research Interests
I am a specialist in genomics and structural bioinformatics, with specific applications in food security and ecosystem conservation. My work involves data science at the interface of Botany, Chemistry and Geography. Listed below are some of the threads of research that my group is currently exploring. Eventually, we hope to be able to address the question of why all plants cannot form polyploids, and how this capacity confers upon plant genomes, the phenomenal ability to travel, adapt and expand into new realms.
Food Security
As part of the TIGR2ESS program, we are trying to explore the connection between photosynthetic efficiency and epigenetic inheritance. This is being investigated through comparative analysis of Carbon concentrating mechanisms in model plants and green algae, using time resolved transcriptomes along the Chlamydomonas diurnal cycle. (Work Funded by the RCUK- BBSRC)
Complex Networks, AI & Big Data
We have gained insights into network resilience and susceptibility through induction of a variety of random and targeted perturbations in hundreds of biological networks, followed by investigation of their responses under attack. This has enabled us to develop tools for predicting robustness in real world networks, and for partitioning complex networks into biologically meaningful communities. We are also developing deep learning models for deriving regulatory inferences from large scale gene expression data. These models have been used to decipher the floral transition network of Arabidopsis, rice master regulators of abiotic stress and more recently, evidence for prion-like proteins as mediators of cross-talk between transient and trans-generational memory in plants. (Work Funded by DBT)
Biodiversity Informatics
We are trying to unpack plant chemical arsenals by investigating the phytochemical landscape, by using knowledge based approaches like genomics, Geo-spatial imaging and species distribution modeling, in an effort to understand and appreciate how plant chemistry is pivotal to human well-being. We are also investigating biological invasions across urban ecosystems in order to gain insights into the potential invasivity of species, as well as into the invasibility of habitats. We have developed one of the world’s largest  contextual repositories of plant emissions, opening up new avenues of research in specialized metabolism and plant-environment communication. (Work Funded by SERB/DST).
 Awards & Honors
SASTRA-Obaid Siddiqi Life Science Award (2021)
Elected Member, Governing Council, St Edmund's College, University of Cambridge (2021-2023)
Hamied Fellowship Award (2017-2019), University of Cambridge, U.K
Elected Fellow, St Edmund's College, University of Cambridge, U./K (2019)
Young Leaders Award by Global Young Academy (GYA), for World Science Forum (WSF) Budapest, Hungary (2019)
INSA Bilateral Exchange (BEP) Award (2018)
Early Career Award for CSC-2017, Royal Society of London, UK
DBT-Cambridge Lectureship Award (2016), DBT and Cambridge University, UK
Elected Member,  National Academy of Sciences India (NASI), 2016
Elected Member, Indian National Young Academy of Science (INYAS): 2016 - 2021
SERB ' Women Excellence Award' (2013) by Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), India
Haryana "Yuva Vigyan Ratna" Award (2010-11) by the Haryana State Council for S & T
INSA Medal for Young Scientists (2011) [Biochemistry & Biophysics] 
Associate, Indian Academy of Sciences (2010-2014)
Prof. Hira Lal Chakravarty Memorial award in Plant Sciences (2010) - ISCA (Indian Science Congress Association)
DBT Senior IYBA Award (2009)
NASI Young Scientist Platinum Jubilee Award (2009)
Innovative Young Biotechnologist Award (IYBA), DBT (2005)
CSIR Junior and Senior Research Fellowships (2000 and 2002).
CSIR 'Catch Them Young' Fellowship (1998-2000)
 Policy Roles/ Panel Membership
Trusteeship, St Edmund's College, University of Cambridge (2021)
Member, Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet) Executive Committee (2021)
Member, COVID Projects Steering Committee, NCSTC -DST, Govt of India (2020 onwards)
Member, Advisory Board, Hyderabad City Cluster, Telangana Government (2020 onwards)
Member, Delhi City Knowledge Education Cluster (2020 onwards)
Member, Steering committee "Plantae Presents", powered by the American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB) (2020-2021)
Featured in 365-Indian-Women-In-STEM by TheLifeofScience.com (TLoS) 2021
Member, Equality and Diversity Committee, St Edmund's College, University of Cambridge (2020 -21)
Member, Board of Discipline, St Edmund's College, University of Cambridge (2020 - 2022)
Member, Equality Diversity and Wellbeing Committee, Dept of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge (2017 - 2021)
Member, Expert Committee for Implementation of Programmes for Accelerated Participation of Women in Science and Technology, DST, Govt of India
Member of Ramalingswami Awards Selection Committee, Dept of Biotechnology Govt of India (2017-2020)
Elected Member, National Core Committee, Indian INYAS (2018 - 2020)
Life Member of the Indian Society for Plant Physiologists (ISPP)
Member, British Ecological Society (2017), UK
Member OC, INYAS-National Frontiers of Science (NatFoS) Meeting - 2020
Development of India-U.K Crop Science Fellowship with DBT & eight U.K partners (2020)
Launch Declaration: Code of Conduct for Young Academies with Global Young Academy (2019)
Member, ASEAN SIT Panel for Biotechnology and Life Sciences (2020 -2023)
Organised Launch of Cambridge India Research Foundation (CIRF) Jan 2019, New Delhi
Action Plan on Policies for Secure & Sustainable Agriculture in India (2019)
Frameworks for research policy at Anglo Israeli Roundtable in London (2019)
India-U.K Round Table on  “Fostering Entrepreneurial Innovation in Agri Tech”, New Delhi (2019)"
Member, Selection Committee, INYAS Inno-China Tour (2019)
Member Organising Committee, INYAS-National Frontiers of Science (NatFoS) Meeting (2018 - 2020)
Member DBT-CTEP Committee (2014-17)
Visiting Scientist at The Keck Graduate Institute, Claremont, CA, USA (2006).
 Bioinformatics Training
OPENVIRUS Internship Program during COVID Pandemic: An online remote internship program to instill a sense of open science, project management and scientific social responsibility in youth. All our work, reporting, presentation and results are documented online and openly on GitHub. This is a joint collaboration between NIPGR, INYAS, KARYA DST Rajasthan, University of Cambridge, Contentmine Cambridge and TIGR2ESS Program. For More Information, click here:
Bioinformatics Training Instructor, University of Cambridge (since 2016): Dr. Yadav conducts regular 1 to 3-day workshops and courses in Introductory and Intermediate R, Data Sckills and Biological Networks. For more informations, course timetables and booking a place, please click here
"Protocols from Home" Series of Webinars during COVID-19 Pandemic to impart hands-on skills in Computational Biology to students and researchers in Life Sciences. All courses are Open and Free to all. For more information, please click here
Biological Networks and their Visualisation using R & Cytoscape
Co-Expression Networks from RNA-Seq Data
WGCNA and Network Motifs
As coordinator of the NIPGR Distributed Information Sub Centre (DISC) facility from 2007 to 2017, under DBT's Biotechnology Information System Network (BTISNET) program, Dr. Yadav conducted short- and long-term training in the area of Computational Biology, including annual Bioinformatics workshops and hands-on training of students for two to six months. These workshops and studentship programs were designed to help researchers aware of available facilities in plant computational biology and its applications.
 
For more details regarding DISC Facility Click Here
For more details regarding Web Resources Click Here
For more details regarding DBT-BTISNET Workshops Click Here
 Events
We-VIDYA (Women enabled for Virtual Induction as Data youth and AI Professionals): Gitanjali Yadav organised the Four day Data Science Workshop for Indian Women funded by DST-KIRAN, RICH-HCC, INYAS and TIGR2ESS. The aim is to conduct these events on a regular basis for bridging the Digital Gender Divide in India, in collaboration with University of Cambridge. Click here for more information.

GROW-ECR: A Live Hands-on week long training in R coding for Data Skills for Early Career Researchers in India and the U.K. Scheduled to be held online in November 2021. Registration Information to be updated soon - Watch This Space!

National Frontiers of Science (NatFoS) Meeting 2019, funded by Office of the Principal Scientific Advisor to Govt of India, and the RCUK-BBSRC TIGR2ESS Program. As member of the National Core Committee of Indian National Young Academy of Science (INYAS), Dr. Gitanjali Yadav was the Convener of this meeting. For more information, Click Here

TIGR2ESS R4R India-U.K First Bioinformatics Workshop: A live Hands-On workshop on using R for Biological Data Analysis, RNA-Seq and Agricultural Genomics and Text MIning. Held in Feb-March 2019. For more information, click here
 Media Coverage & Public Links
SASTRA National Science Day Awards 2021 - (The Hindu, March 2021)
Eminent Plant Scientist trains Women in Science! [Indian Express Feb 2021]
The Botanist Redefining our Relationship with Plants (Makers INDIA, Feb 2021)
Obaid Siddiqi NSD Award Lecture (National Science Day 2021)
U.K Govt International Mobility (Feb 2021)
Coping with COVID 2020: Indian Express (Aug 2020)
GY Lab Interview
Our work on Food Security
Cambridge GFS 2020
50 Years of Women at Cambridge
Science for Humanity
Nurturing a Support System for Women in Science
Online Lab Meeting 2020 SRFP-INYAS-KARYA Summer Internship Program
The Plant Terpenome
Harnessing The Ecological Data Revolution
Green Carbon For Food Security
INYAS Science and Serendipity 2020
Green Algal Photosynthesis
CEFIPRA WiS Seminar CNRS Paris
Report on Policies and Action Plan for a secure and sustainable Agriculture, Govt of India. (2019)
The plan to mine the worlds research papers Nature News, (2019)
The secret Life of Plants, Cambridge Alumni Magazine, (2019) Vol86
Coverage of Work and Scientific Outreach under RCUK- GCRF TIGR2ESS (2019)
Funding Challenges in Research (2018) Journey of a Young Investigator, IndiaBioscience (2018)
The Botanist Researching the Inner World of Plants. (2017) This Cambridge Life, Magazine
CSaP Science & Policy
TIGR2ESS Field Trip in Rural Haryana (2018)
Rural Science Outreach (2018)
Haryana Honours Scientists, The Hindu, National Daily, India (2012)
 Group Members
 Former Group Members
 Publications
Garai S, C Citu, Singla-Pareek SL, Sopory SK, Kaur C, Yadav G* (2021) Complex Networks of Prion-like proteins reveal crosstalk b/w Stress & Memory pathways in Plants. Frontiers in Plant Science. 12, 1513, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.707286
Gupta R, Prasad A, Babu S, Yadav G*. (2021) Impact of Coronavirus Outbreaks on Science and Society: Insights from Temporal Bibliometry of SARS and COVID-19. Entropy 2021, 23, 626. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050626
Kumar A and Yadav G*. (2021) Shared ancestry of core-histone subunits and non-histone plant proteins containing the Histone Fold Motif (HFM) Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, 2021, 19 (2) https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219720021400011
Misra P, Prasad A, Babu S and Yadav G* (2020) Decision Support Systems based on Scientific Evidence: Bibliometric Networks of Invasive Lantana camara. Proc Ind Natl Sc. Acad (In Press) doi 10.1101/2020.08.10.240879
Verma P, Tandon R, Yadav G, Gaur V (2020) Structural aspects of DNA repair and recombination in crop improvement. Frontiers in Genetics doi 10.3389/fgene.2020.574549
Mahtha SK, Purama R, Yadav G* (2020) Comparative genomics of StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domains across wild and cultivated rice
Sharma M, Jamsheer MK, Shukla BN, Awasth PA, Mahtha SK, Yadav G and Laxmi A (2020) TOR coordinates with transcriptional and chromatin machinery to regulate thermotolerance and thermomemory
Smita S, Katyar A, Dalal, Mahtha SK,..Yadav G, Mani P and Bansal KC (2019) Gene network modules associated with abiotic stress response in tolerant rice genotypes identified by transcriptome meta-analysis, Functional and Integrative Genomics (DOI s10142-019-00697-w)
Yadav G* Funding Challenges in Research (2018) Journey of a Young Investigator (JOYI) Series, Indiabioscience, March 2018
Babu, S and Yadav G* (2018) Extinction Curves and Error Propagation in Mutualistic Ecological Networks: The Case of Frugivores in a Tropical Rainforest. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Complex Networks and Their Applications. December 11-13, 2018, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Priya P, Yadav A, Jyoti C and Yadav G* (2018)  TERZYME: A Tool for Quantification and Analysis of the plant Terpenome. Plant Methods (In Press)
Yadav A, Thakur JK and  Yadav G* (2017)  KIXBASE: A Comprehensive web resource for identification and exploration of KIX domains. Scientific Reports 7(1):14924.
Yadav G and Mohanty, D (2017) Databases developed in India for Biological Sciences. Journal of Proteins and Proteomics 8(3), 159-167
Patra B, Kon Y, Yadav G, Sevold A,.. Hintze A, Galas D and Ray A* (2017) A genome wide dosage suppressor network reveals genetic robustness Nucleic Acids Research 45(1),255–270
Priya P, Kumari S and Yadav G* (2016) Quantification of the plant terpenome: predicted versus actual emission potentials. Ind J Plant Phys DOI: 10.1007/s40502-016-0256-x
Yadav G* and Babu S (2016) Evidence for alternate stable states in collapsing ecological networks. doi: Biorxiv/2016/046045
Amish K and Yadav G* (2016) Diversification of the Histone Fold Motif (HFM) in Plants: Evolution of New Functional Roles. Defence Life Science Journal (Vol1:1) DOI: 10.14429/dlsj.1.10061
Babu S and Yadav G* (2016) Co-Authorship Networks Reveal Patterns of Scientific Collaboration and Research Impact. Defence Life Science Journal (Vol1:1) DOI: 10.14429/dlsj.1.10087
Priya P, Bandhiwal N, Misra G, Mondal S and Yadav G* (2015) IGMAP: An Interactive Mapping and Clustering Platform for Plants. Molecular Plant. 8(5): 818–821. doi:10.1016/j.molp.2015.01.018
Parween S, Nawaz K, Roy R, Pole AK, Venkata Suresh B, Misra G, Jain M, Yadav G, Parida SK, Tyagi AK, Bhatia S, Chattopadhyay D (2015) An advanced draft genome assembly of a desi type chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Scientific Reports Doi: 10.1038/srep12806.
Kumari S, Pundhir S, Priya P, Jeena G, Punetha A, Chawla K, Jafaree Z, Mondal S and Yadav G* (2014) EssOilDB: A Database of Essential Oils reflecting Terpene Composition and Variability in the Plant Kingdom. Database DOI: 10.1093/database/bau120
Misra G, Priya P, Bandhiwal N, Bareja N, Jain M, Bhatia S, Chattopadhyay D, Tyagi AK and Yadav G* (2014) The Chickpea Genomic Web Resource: Visualization and Analysis of the Desi-type Cicer arietinum Nuclear Genome for Comparative Exploration of Legumes. BMC Plant Biology. 14(1): 315
[Recommended by Faculty of 1000] Schrick K, Bruno M, Khosla A, Roque RA, Nguyen H, Snyder MP, Singh D and Yadav G (2014) Shared functions of plant and mammalian StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domains in modulating transcription factor activity. BMC Biology. 12:70 doi:10.1186/s12915-014-0070-8 ( View Recommendation Here)
Thakur JK, Yadav A and Yadav G* (2014) Molecular recognition by the KIX domain and its role in gene regulation. Nucl. Acids Res. 42 (4): 2112-2125
Kumari S, Priya P, Misra G and Yadav G* (2013) Structural and biochemical perspectives in plant isoprenoid biosynthesis. Phytochemistry Reviews. 12: 255-291
Jain M, Misra G, Patel RK, Priya P, Jhanwar S, Khan AW, Shah N, Singh VK, Garg R, Jeena G, Yadav M, Kant C, Sharma P, Yadav G, Bhatia S, Tyagi AK, Chattopadhyay D (2013) A draft genome sequence of the pulse crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Plant Journal. DOI: 10.1111/tpj.12173
Kumari R, Yadav G, Sharma V & Kumar S (2013) Cytosine hypomethylation at CHG and CHH sites in the pleiotropic mutants of Mendelian inheritance in Catharanthus roseus. Journal of Genetics 92(3): 499-511
Kumar S, Kumari R, Sharma V & Yadav G (2013) Common and Distinguishing Characteristics of Genes and Genomes and Their Evolution in the Genome Sequenced Legumes. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad. 79 (2): 277-286
Yadav G, Anand S and Mohanty D (2013) Prediction of inter domain interactions in modular polyketide synthases by docking and correlated mutation analysis. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 31(1): 17-29. (Spl Issue: Predictive biology using systems and integrative analysis and methods)
Yadav G* and Babu S (2012) NEXCADE: Perturbation Analysis for Complex Networks. PLoS ONE 7(8): e41827. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041827
Kumari S, Shridhar S, Singh D, Farmer R, Hundal J, Priya P, Sharma P, Bhavishi K, Schrick K, and Yadav G*. (2012) The role of lectins and HD-ZIP transcription factors in Isoprenoid based plant stress responses Proc. Ind. Natl. Sci. Acad. 78 (4): 671-691 (Article in Cover Illustration)
Gaur R, Azam S, Jeena G, Khan AW, Chaudhary S, Jain M, Yadav G, Tyagi AK, Chattopadhyay D, Bhatia S (2012) High-throughput SNP discovery and genotyping for constructing a saturated linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). DNA Research pp:1-17 doi:10.1093/dnares/dss018
Chaudhary S, Sharma V, Prasad M, Bhatia S, Tripathi BN, Yadav G, Kumar S (2011) Characterization and genetic linkage mapping of the horticulturally important mutation leafless inflorescence (lli) in periwinkle Catharanthus roseus. Sci. Horti. (in press) Doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.02.025
Garg R, Patel RK, Jhanwar S, Priya P, Bhattacharjee A, Yadav G, Bhatia S et al (2011) Gene discovery and tissue-specific transcriptome analysis in chickpea with massively parallel pyrosequencing and web resource development. Plant Physiol 156: 1661-1678.
Anand S, Prasad MV, Yadav G, Kumar N, Shehara J et al.(2010) SBSPKS: structure based sequence analysis of polyketide synthases. Nucl. Acids. Res. 2010 May 5. [Epub ahead of print]
Shridhar S, Chattopadhyay D and Yadav G* (2009) PLecDom: A program for identification and analysis of plant Lectin Domains. Nucl. Acids. Res. Jul 1;37: W452-8. Epub 2009 May 27.
Kumar S, Mishra RK, Chaudhary S, Pandey R and Yadav G (2009) Co-regulation of Biomass Partitioning by Leafblade Morphology Genes Afila, Multifoliate-pinna, Tendril-less and Unifoliata in Grain Pea Pisum sativum. Proc. Ind. Natl. Sc. Acad, 75 No. 1 pp 15-25.
Yadav G, Gokhale RS and Mohanty D (2009) Towards prediction of metabolic products of Polyketide Synthases: An In Silico analysis. PLoS. Comp. Biol. Apr; Vol 5(4): e1000351.
Yadav G*, Prasad RLA, Jha BK, Rai V, Bhakuni VK and Datta K (2008). Evidence for inhibitory interaction of hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1/p32/gC1qR) with S. pneumoniae hyaluronidase. J. Biol. Chem 284(6): 3897-3905 (*corresponding authors)
Kaur H, Shukla RK, Yadav G, Chattopadhyay D and Majee M (2008) Two divergent genes encoding L-myo-inositol 1 -phosphate synthase1 (CaMIPS1) and 2 (CaMIPS2) are differentially expressed in chickpea. Plant, Cell and Environment 31: 1701-1716.
Chopra T, Banerjee S, Gupta S, Yadav G, Anand S, et al. (2008) Novel Intermolecular Iterative Mechanism for Biosynthesis of Mycoketide Catalyzed by a Bimodular Polyketide Synthase. PLoS Biology 6(7): e163 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060163.
Ansari MZ, Yadav G, Gokhale RS and Mohanty D (2004) NRPS-PKS A knowledge based resource for analysis of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases. Nucl. Acids Res. 32: W401-W415.
Yadav G, Gokhale RS and Mohanty D (2003) Computational approach for prediction of domain organization and substrate specificity of modular polyketide synthases. J. Mol. Biol. 328: 335-63.
Yadav G, Gokhale RS and Mohanty D (2003) SEARCHPKS: A Program for detection and analysis of polyketide synthase domains. Nucl. Acids Res. 31: 3654-3658.
Saxena P, Yadav G, Mohanty D and Gokhale RS (2003) A new family of type III polyketide synthases in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 44780-90.
 Book Chapters, Conference Posters & Proceedings
Mahtha SK, Purama RK, Kumari R & Yadav G* (2021) Identification and Downstream Analyses of Domains Amplified in Plant Genomes: The Case of StAR-Related Lipid Transfer (START) Domains in Rice. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). Rice Genome Engineering and Gene Editing, 325-338
Gupta R, Prasad A, Babu S & Yadav G* (2021) Temporal Bibliometry Networks of SARS, MERS and COVID19 Reveal Dynamics of the Pandemic. In: Benito R.M., Cherifi C., Cherifi H., Moro E., Rocha L.M., Sales-Pardo M. (eds) Complex Networks & Their Applications. Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol 944. Springer, Cham.
Kumar A, Yadav G* (2020) Networks of Function and Shared Ancestry Provide Insights into Diversification of Histone Fold Domain in the Plant Kingdom. In: Cherifi H., Gaito S., Mendes J., Moro E., Rocha L. (eds) Complex Networks and Their Applications Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol 882. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36683-4_63
Babu S, Yadav G. (2019) Robustness Through Regime Flips in Collapsing Ecological Networks. In: Aiello L., Cherifi C., Cherifi H., Lambiotte R., Lió P., Rocha L. (eds) Complex Networks and Their Applications. Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol 812. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05411-3_67
Kumar V, Chauhan S, Kumar M, Kumari R, Babu S & Yadav G* (2019) “Chemical Curation of Lantana camara Emissions across Native/ Invaded Habitats” Zenodo DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3558770.
Lamba V, Shruthi M, Kumar M, Kumar A, Yadav G, Murray-Rust P (2019) “EssoilDB A semantic phytochemical knowledgebase” Open Plant Forum 2019, Cambridge, UK
Murray-Rust P, Adams C, Davies C, Faria E, Kumar A, Yadav G* (2019) “CEVOpen: Can machines curate the Open phytochemistry literature” Zenodo DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3558784
Yadav M, Babu S and Yadav G. (2015). Patterns of Codon Usage in Plastidial Genomes of Ancient Plants Provide Insights into Evolution.In Proceedings of the International Conference on Bioinformatics Models, Methods and Algorithms - Volume 1: BIOINFORMATICS, (BIOSTEC 2015) ISBN 978-989-758-070-3, pages 144-149. DOI: 10.5220/0005246301440149
Yadav G, Gokhale RS and Mohanty D (2004) Protein Science, 13 (1): 185, PS-04; 18th Symposium of the Protein Society, San Diego, California, August 14-18, 2004
Yadav G, Gokhale RS and Mohanty D (2003) Abstract of the 10th FAOBMB Congress Bangalore (India), page P9-01
Yadav G and Mohanty D (2001) Abstracts of the International Symposium on Crystallography and Bioinformatics in Structural Biology. S9