Legumes are the second most important crop to humans. Grain and forage legumes are grown in about 15% of the world's cultivated land, account for 27% of world's primary crop production and provide 33% of dietary nitrogen requirement, apart from being a natural fertilizer. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most consumed legume crop after bean and pea. It is the most important pulse crop of India (covering 33% of the area and contributing 45% to the pulse basket) and the principal source of dietaryprotein for the majority in the developing countries. Chickpea has a high morphological but a narrow genetic background, which makes it difficult to produce elite high yielding varieties by marker assisted selection. Hence sequencing of whole nuclear genome of Chickpea, an annual, self-pollinating, diploid (2n=16) grain legume crop has been undertaken. Genome sequence of chickpea will provide a platform for molecular and genetic study of symbiosis/nodulation, genetic and epigenetic variation. Analysis of gene content and transcript assemblies/full-length cDNAs will be helpful in identifying novel genes thereby providing a functional genomics platform for characterizing different developmental stages and stress response pathways.